MAXXMUSCLE ATOMIC BOMB REVIEW

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb Review

Pre workout supplements are often hyped the same way as action movies.

  • Explosions,
  • Bold statements.
  • Massive biceps.

In today’s MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb review, I’ll see whether this is more Terminator 2 or Titanic 2.

(Yes, that actually exists!)

Atomic Bomb is the new pre workout from professional bodybuilder Anth Bailes, a.k.a. “The Freak”. It is the latest addition to his MaxxMuscle “All Or Nothing!” supplement line, which claims to be among the most explosive supplements on the whole market.

Heck, they have an actual explosion on the cover.

First box ticked.

maxxmuscle atomic bomb review

But let’s take a more in depth look, as I put it through my deliberately harsh supplement rating system to see how it compares against the leading pre workout supplements out there.

No supplement has ever got through it with 5 stars.

Let’s see how Atomic Bomb does.

Anth Bailes Atomic Bomb Pre Workout

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb – The Good

We begin with a quick round-up of the main good points.

I’ll break down the entire formula below if you’d like to go more in detail.

First up, this is a solid first pre workout for a line which I hope to see develop further in future.

There’s no proprietary blend, which is a great start.

This immediately gains my respect, because it’s alarming how many supplement manufacturers still hide their formulas behind proprietary blends even though they should be a thing of the past.

The inclusion of 3 grams of beta-alanine will certainly get your skin crawling, and it even includes 150mg of the powerful stimulant DMHA (2016’s “next big thing” after the banning of DMAA) which will has a euphoria-like training effect.

Elsewhere, you’ll get a 500mg dose of choline to increase focus and a double dose of energy in the shape of 150mg caffeine and 150mg TeaCrine.

That’s a fairly solid start.

But it isn’t all great news…

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb review

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb – The Bad

Here’s a quick round-up of the main bad points.

After all, no supplement is perfect.

The very first thing you’ll notice is that citrulline malate is way down at just 2.5 grams per serving.

W.T.F.

Citrulline malate is one of the most important ingredients in any great pre workout supplement, but the clinical dosage is 6-8 grams. Atomic Bomb is very under-dosed in citrulline malate.

The product also includes 1.8 grams of creatine, which won’t necessarily harm your upcoming workout but doesn’t really present any benefits, either.

In order to obtain the strength advantages of creatine supplementation we do not need to consume in a pre workout (it offers no additional benefits to consuming it at any other time of day) but if you are going to include it, at least do it the right way by using a clinical dose (5 grams) of creatine monohydrate.

That’s the second red flag…

We also get 1 gram of taurine which, if you are a regular reader of my blog, you’ll know I’m not a big fan of due to the fact taurine impedes the effects of caffeine.

There’s no betaine, which is a shame given it’s ability to increase strength output.

Finally, we have the unnecessary inclusion of niacin.

Niacin (vitamin B) does indeed have energy boosting qualities but, like creatine, there are no additional training benefits to consuming it before training versus any other time of day. It belongs in a multivitamin, not a pre workout.

The reason niacin is commonly included in pre’s, however, is because niacin also promotes a flushing, tingly effect similar to that of beta-alanine. This allows a supplement that’s under-dosed in beta-alanine to get away with tricking the user into “feeling” the product kicking in.

It’s a strange and unnecessary addition to Atomic Bomb, as the product already contains 3 grams of beta-alanine (the clinical dose is 3.2g, but this is still easily enough to bring on the training benefits) therefore there’s no need to put a superficial ingredient like niacin in the formula.

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb nutrition information

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb – Ingredient Breakdown

Time to get serious…

We’ve seen the wheels come off many supplements during this stage of my review process, where I break down the nutritional information to show you why each ingredient has been included in the formula (and whether the dose is sufficient to do the things it claims).

As you can see so far, the bad outweighs the good.

But let’s not write this supplement off entirely. I’ve certainly seen worse!

I’m now going to look at MaxxMuscle’s new pre workout formula in more depth, so you can see exactly what you are getting in every scoop.

We’ll start with the big one…

  • 150mg DMHA

When DMAA was banned in 2013, the supplement industry spent a couple of years scrambling to find a new “next big thing” in exotic stimulants.

In early 2016, DMHA hit the market.

Mimicking many of the effects of DMAA, it promotes a euphoric energy burst that should keep you feeling highly energetic for a few hours.

Anything over 100mg should be considered a decent sized dosage, and Atomic Bomb doesn’t mess around with a 150mg serving.

Of course, if you’re a real stim-junkie and want to push the training benefits of DMHA to the max, there are supplements out there which offer even greater serving sizes, such as CT Fletcher’s Sidewalk Kraka, which comes in at an impressive 200mg per serving.

Will DMHA eventually suffer the same fate as DMAA and get banned?

It’s already banned in Australia, where supplement regulations are incredibly strict, but time will tell if the ban eventually goes global. The available body of research isn’t conclusive enough to provide enough information regarding it’s safety or effectiveness in humans.

But if it does eventually get banned, it’ll be for the right reasons.

After all, DMAA has since been linked to seizures and strokes.

Nowadays, people talk about pre workouts getting banned as if it’s a badge of honour.

“Check this out, bro! It’s getting banned soon!”

This is nonsense.

Until more is known, the inclusion of DMHA in any supplement makes it a grey area for serious athletes, and it’s best to stay clear if you aren’t 100% sure if it’s currently within your competitive guidelines.

Case in point; Olympic sprint legend Usain Bolt famously had his 4 x 100m relay gold medal stripped after his team-mate, Nestor Carter, was found to have used DMAA to enhance his track performance, costing himself and his entire team their place in the record books.

Click here if you’re interested in learning more about DMHA.

 

  • 150mg Caffeine

We move from a substance lacking in scientific research to one with more than most.

Caffeine has been shown to boost a variety of training aspects including focus, energy levels, alertness and calorie burn. (1, 2, 3, 4)

150mg per serving is on the low side in comparison with most pre workout supplements, but there is a reason for that (TeaCrine).

The main drawback here is that the performance of caffeine depends largely on the individual’s tolerance levels, meaning somebody who gulps down 10 cups of coffee per day would never experience the same benefits as a person who doesn’t drink coffee at all. (5)

Enter the next ingredient…

teacrine

  • 150mg TeaCrine

Allow me to introduce you to the next generation of energy supplements.

TeaCrine (a.k.a. theacrine) is caffeine’s bigger, stronger cousin.

It’s popularity is still in it’s infancy, but I do expect this substance to become a real big player in the supplement industry over the next 5 years or so.

So what’s the difference between caffeine and TeaCrine?

Well, while caffeine works by inhibiting adenosine receptors, TeaCrine works by inhibiting adenosine receptors and activating dopamine receptors. That’s a fantastic added benefit for your training, as higher dopamine levels mean more energy and more focus. (6)

But that’s not even the best news…

Early studies show that TeaCrine offers all of the benefits of caffeine (and then some) without the tolerance level build-up that usually occurs with prolonged caffeine usage!

That’s right.

Imagine if every time you used caffeine was like the first time.

That’s TeaCrine.

In a 2012 study published in Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, researchers found that tolerance to TeaCrine actually INCREASED with prolonged supplementation. Then, in 2015, researchers from the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, found that consuming a daily dose of TeaCrine showed no habituation over a full 8 week study. (7, 8)

What’s more, a 2012 study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition also showed that a whopping 80% of TeaCrine’s benefits had been exhibited within 1 hour of usage, meaning you won’t spend the rest of the day bouncing off the walls like a piece of Flubber(9)

More research is needed (and it is being done), but this is all great news as it means we can potentially use the same dose of TeaCrine without experiencing any negative adaptations or drops in performance.

In terms of dosage, researchers from Rutgers University, New Jersey, found that combining 120mg TeaCrine with 150mg caffeine was superior than dosing 275mg caffeine on it’s own. (10)

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb comes in at 150mg TeaCrine alongside 150mg caffeine, so this combination is ideal.

Anth Bailes pre workout review

  • 3g Beta-Alanine

Beta-alanine is responsible for the tingling, skin-crawling effect commonly experienced after taking a pre workout supplement.

There’s more going on under the surface, as  beta-alanine has been shown to act as a buffer against lactic acid build-up during exercise, meaning you’ll be able to fight against “the burn” for longer. (11)

This is very useful in a gym setting, as was demonstrated in a 2008 study published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine, where researchers concluded that supplementing with beta-alanine resulted in 25% increase in reps per set. (12)

Optimal dosage is 3.2 grams per day, although newer research suggests that consuming it across two servings leads to slightly better uptake. (13)

Regardless, MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb comes in at 3 grams per serving, which is slightly under the clinical dose but still easily high enough to yield the training benefits over time.

Maxx Muscle Atomic Bomb review

  • 2.5g Citrulline Malate

Despite getting off to a great start, this is where things take a major turn for the worse.

Citrulline malate is one of the key ingredients in any top pre workout supplement.

Heck, when I wrote my Great Pre Workout Checklist article I even included it as the #1 ingredient.

It’s capable of improving a variety of different training aspects, covering everything from an increased recovery between sets, to an improvement in the number of repetitions per set, and even a greater pump while training. (24, 25)

It does this by accessing the body’s nitric oxide pathways, allowing for greater blood flow and nutrient delivery to working muscles. Nitric oxide boosting supplements rose to fame in the early 2000’s, but in those days arginine was used as the main N.O. boosting ingredient.

The problem there is that arginine has a very low absorption rate, with only a tiny proportion of the dose actually making it beyond the intestines and liver. (26)

Citrulline, on the other hand, was shown in a 2008 study to have an absorption rate more than 50% greater than arginine. (27)

Once inside the body, citrulline is converted into arginine and begins the job of opening up those nitric oxide pathways, allowing for greater nutrient delivery to the working muscles – meaning citrulline malate is actually a superior way of supplementing arginine, than using arginine directly!

But in order to reap the rewards offered by citrulline malate (and they’re worth reaping!) we need a clinical dosage of 6-8 grams.

Citrulline malate is one of the more expensive ingredients in a pre, so it’s common to see companies use a practice known as “fairy dusting”.

This means they’ll include it in the product so they can tout the benefits all over the tub (i.e. increased endurance, greater pump) abut it’s actually severely under-dosed and none of those benefits can be achieved.

Atomic Bomb only provides 2.5 grams, which is not enough to give any of the training benefits.

This is a big turn-off for me because outside of exotic stimulants (i.e. for athletes looking to use 100% safe ingredients that go nowhere near the grey area in the rules of their sport) citrulline is the most important ingredient in a muscle building pre workout supplement.

Atomic Bomb pre workout review

  • 1.8g Creatine

Creatine is the most thoroughly researched (and best-selling) bodybuilding supplement of all time.

It is one of the most widely used substances in all of sports because of it’s ability to boost explosive strength.

In fact, a great meta-analysis published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research in 2003 looked at the results of 22 previous clinical studies to report the effects of creatine supplementation on weight training. They concluded that subjects experienced an average 8% strength increase, and the number of reps per set until muscle failure rose by 14%(14)

It’s the one strength building ingredient that every athlete should be using.

And creatine is perfectly safe, too. (15)

The problem is it doesn’t need to be in your pre workout in order to be effective.

It certainly won’t harm your training in any way, but there are no additional training benefits to consuming it before training, or after training, or even first thing in the morning. As long as you get your 5 grams of creatine monohydrate per day, you are good to go.

Which brings us to another issue…

If you insist on using creatine in your pre workout supplement, you need to do it the right way with a full clinical dose, preferably of creatine monohydrate.

Many new blends of creatine have hit the market in the last 30 years (HCL, kre-alkalyn, ethyl-ester), all claiming to be superior to the original form, but none have ever been shown to yield greater effects.

From a scientific standpoint, it makes sense to stay loyal to creatine monohydrate until something genuinely better appears on the horizon, yet most supplement manufacturers can’t resist tinkering with their creatine formula, and then claiming that the blend is somehow superior.

The bottom line: it is not superior.

Inside Atomic Bomb, we get a 1.8 gram dose of creatine hydrochloride and creatine monohydrate.

The key difference between creatine hydrochloride and classic monohydrate is that Creatine HCL doesn’t require carbohydrates for absorption, making it a good way to supplement with creatine if you are doing a low carb diet or a ketogenic diet. (16)

Read more about creatine HCL here.

Results-wise, however, it’s no superior.

It would make more sense to simply choose between monohydrate and HCL, and opt for a full clinical dose of either one (5g for monohydrate, 2.5g for HCL).

We don’t know the exact split between the two forms (it’s undisclosed), but the total dose of 1.8g is too small anyway. We would need an additional creatine supplement in order to hit our full daily requirements. And if you already have your own separate creatine supplement, you’ll just use that to hit your full daily dose (because it’s cheap as chips), which gets back to my original point – creatine does not need to be in your pre workout!

maxxmuscle_atomic_bomb_pre_workout_review

  • 3g Hydromax

Hydromax (glycerol) is growing in popularity among bodybuilding supplement manufacturers for it’s ability to act as a pump-enhancer.

It’s main use from a performance perspective is to provide greater hydration to muscle cells, therefore limiting dehydration during intense exercise.

It’s incredibly difficult to get these benefits because we would need an astronomical dose, but a knock-on effect of glycerol supplementation is a better pump.

That’s why it’s really being used in pre workouts.

You see, to get the benefits of improved hydration we’d need to increase the dosage to a whopping 80 grams per day, as shown in a 2012 study published in the Journal of Human Kinetics. That’s way above the kind of dosage you’ll ever see in a pre workout supplement. If each scoop of your pre contained 80 grams o glycerol, the tub would be the size of your fridge! (17)

A dose of 0.7g-2g has already been shown to increased muscular volume, though, so using glycerol to superficially enhance “the pump” during training is far easier. (18)

MaxxMuscle have included 3 grams of Hydromax glycerol in each serving of Atomic Bomb, which is easily above the daily dose threshold, so if you drink plenty of water while you train you’ll see a decent return in the mirror.

Due to it’s effects on hydration, however, it’s not unusual for subjects to notice a slight gain in body weight while supplementing with glycerol.

Don’t panic! This is merely water weight, not an increase in fat mass.

Including 3 grams of Hydromax at the expense of a full dose of citrulline doesn’t make sense, as a full serving of citrulline would also bring the pump alongside the other training benefits it carries too, whereas Hydromax (at least in the dose we get here) only offers us a temporary pump benefit.

atomic bomb pre workout

  • 10mg Bioperine

Bioperine (black pepper extract) is included in many supplements.

It can increase production of dopamine, which is great for training output (although the results are slight), but the main benefit is that bioperine increases the absorption rate of all of the other ingredients inside Atomic Bomb(19, 20)

Anth Bailes pre workout

  • 500mg Choline Bitarte

Choline is a cognitive booster which has been shown to slightly increase focus. (21)

It’s a useful ingredient, but it’ll never take center stage in your pre workout.

Choline bitarte is one of the less expensive forms of choline (Alpha GPC being the premium option here), but a dose of 500mg is sufficient to yield most of the training benefits it offers.

bodybuilding

  • 100mcg Chromium

Chromium is a mineral commonly used in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin.

It’s also quite useful for reducing carbohydrate cravings, although more research is needed to confirm why this occurs.

Inside Atomic Bomb, though, it’s nothing more than a filler ingredient.

That’s because in individuals who have normal or excessive levels of chromium, no benefits will be experienced (meaning you’re only going to see positive effects if you have a deficiency). And also if you needed to supplement with additional chromium, you’d be looking to intake around 1000mcg per day, not 100mcg.

taurine caffeine

  • 1g Taurine

Taurine is commonly found in pre workout supplements and energy drinks.

It is mainly touted as a focus-enhancing ingredient, but it is one of the ingredients I recommend avoiding before training. (22)

That’s because taurine has been shown to oppose the effects of caffeine when taken simultaneously, so it makes little sense to include both substances in one product. (23)

Despite this fact, many supplement manufacturers continue to do so and the only one which stays ahead of the game on this is AML Pre Workout.

Given caffeine’s obvious training advantages being far greater than the benefits offered by taurine, it makes sense to choose caffeine in a battle between the two.

atomic bomb preworkout

  • 15mg Niacin

Niacin (vitamin B) is another common pre workout ingredient I recommend avoiding.

Despite the fact that it’s used in many supplements and energy drinks under the guise of “increased energy” there is no evidence to support claims that taking vitamin B will improve performance when taken prior to exercise.

Like creatine, as long as you consume your daily dose of vitamin B at any time of the day you’ll get the full benefits so it doesn’t need to be part of your pre workout supplement.

But the potential energy benefits are actually a front for the real reason supplement companies like to throw this one into the mixture.

Niacin has a side-effect which creates a flushing, tingly effect similar to the one provided by beta-alanine.

For many years, this has been a cheap substitute ingredient that allowed supplement manufacturers to under-dose their product in beta-alanine, stick lots of niacin in the formula, then mask the whole thing behind a proprietary blend so the consumer never realized the difference.

Given the fact Atomic Bomb has nearly a full clinical dose of beta-alanine, however, the inclusion of niacin is rather strange. I can only presume it’s here simply because most other companies include it.

Regardless, niacin is unnecessary in a pre workout.

maxxmuscle atomic bomb review

MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb Review – The Final Verdict

It’s time to put this pre workout through my supplement rating system and see how it compares to other industry-leading products.

Does it deliver on it’s promise to make you “equipped for battle”..?

Or is it yet another pre workout that fails to hit the mark?

In truth, it’s a decent product which isn’t going to trouble those who sit at the top of the industry’s food chain.

Sure, Atomic Bomb is streets ahead of a lot of pre workouts which are designed for the “gym newbie” looking for a quick energy boost prior to training, but it’s not the game-changing product it hails itself as.

The 150mg serving of DMHA make it a tricky one, too.

If you are an athlete looking to boost your training output, the jury is still very much out on whether DMHA will remain legal, and I recommend checking with your sport’s governing body to see where they stand on DMHA supplementation prior to use.

Otherwise, you’d be better off opting for a pre workout which keeps things simple and stays away from exotic stimulants, such as the excellent AML Pre Workout.

On the other hand, if you want to use DMHA-based supplements you can find stronger products out there.

For example, CT Fletcher’s Sidewalk Kraka is possibly the most well-dosed stimulant-based pre on the market at this moment in time.

Atomic Bomb also comes with the interesting innovation of including sachets (not powder) in the tub, meaning you don’t have to bother scooping it out. That’s a nice twist although this does appear to push the unit price up a little bit.

Outside of DMHA, we have a very nice combination of caffeine and TeaCrine (which I consider to be the best thing about Atomic Bomb), and a nicely sized dose of beta-alanine.

So this is something you’re definitely going to “feel” when you begin training.

But the red flags are plentiful…

The under-dosed citrulline malate sticks out like a sore thumb and those benefits will be missed. The absence of betaine, the inclusion of taurine alongside caffeine is annoying, and the somewhat unnecessary inclusion of creatine in a pre workout (and then to confuse things further by using an under-dosed blend) mean that Atomic Bomb comes out with a respectable 3 stars.

If you’ve enjoyed reading my official MaxxMuscle Atomic Bomb review and want to try the product for yourself, get some here.

maxxmuscle atomic bomb review

References:

  1. Duncan M. J., et al. The effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state and bench press performance to failure. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jan;25(1):178-85. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318201bddb.
  2. Childs E., et al. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 May;185(4):514-23. Epub 2006 Mar 16.
  3. Holtzman, S. G., et al. CGS 15943, a nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist: effects on locomotor activity of nontolerant and caffeine-tolerant rats. Life Sci. 1991;49(21):1563-70.
  4. Kim T. W., et al. Caffeine increases sweating sensitivity via changes in sudomotor activity during physical loading. J Med Food. 2011 Nov;14(11):1448-55. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2010.1534. Epub 2011 Sep 1.
  5. Beaven, C. M., et al. Dose effect of caffeine on testosterone and cortisol responses to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Apr;18(2):131-41.
  6. Feduccia A., et al. Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav; 2012
  7. Feduccia, A., et al. Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: Involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors. (2012) Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 102 (2): 241. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.04.014.
  8. Hayward, S., et al., Safety of TeaCrine®, a non-habituating, naturally-occurring purine alkaloid over eight weeks of continuous use. ISSN Poster Presentation, 2015
  9. Habowski, S. M., et al. “The effects of TeacrineTM, a nature-identical purine alkaloid, on subjective measures of cognitive function, psychometric and hemodynamic indices in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blinded crossover pilot trial.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition11.Suppl 1 (2014): Page 49.
  10. Arent, S., et al. The effects of Teacrine and caffeine on endurance and cognitive performance during a simulated match in high-level soccer players. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2017, 14(Suppl 2):P35
  11. Donovan T., et al. Beta-alanine improves punch force and frequency in amateur boxers during a simulated contest. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012 Oct;22(5):331-7.
  12. Hoffman J., et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med. 2008 Dec;29(12):952-8. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1038678.
  13. Artioli, G. G., et al. Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jun;42(6):1162-73. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c74e38.
  14. Rawson, E.S., et al. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Nov;17(4):822-31.
  15. Shao, A., et al. Risk assessment for creatine monohydrate. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. (2006)
  16. Miller, D., et al. Oral bioavailability of creatine supplements: Is there room for improvement? Annual Meeting of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2009.
  17. Patlar, S., et al. The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects. Journal of Human Kinetics 34 (2012): 69–79. PMC.
  18. Bartos, J., et al. HydroMax Glycerol Powder 65%. Glanbia Nutritionals. N.p., Aug. 2014.
  19. Kawada, T., et al. Some pungent principles of spices cause the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamine in anesthetized rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1988 Jun;188(2):229-33.
  20. Shoba, G., et al. Influence of Piperine on the pharamacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. (1998) 64(4); 353-356
  21. McGlade, E., et al. Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 769-773. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.36103.
  22. Kim, S., et al. Taurine Induces Anti-Anxiety by Activating Strychnine-Sensitive Glycine Receptor in Viv. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. August 29, 2009, 380.
  23. Giles G. E., et al. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Oct;102(4):569-77. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.07.004. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
  24. Pérez-Guisado J., et al. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb28e0.
  25. Alvares T. S., et al. Acute l-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Feb;37(1):115-26.
  26. Castillo L., et al. Splanchnic metabolism of dietary arginine in relation to nitric oxide synthesis in normal adult man. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 193–7.
  27. Schwedhelm, E., et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65(1):51-9, 2008

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